Potatoes from the CSA or farmers’ market are a treasure. We may see all sorts of potato varieties, from Purple Viking to German Butterball to Yukon, Fingerling, Carola, Red or Russet. With the exception of Russets, the only floury variety in the list, they are pretty interchangeable. Russets are good for hash and mashed potatoes and latkes and baked potatoes of course. The others are petter for gratins and salads and roasting as they keep their shape better and their texture is firmer.
Potatoes of course keep well though it’s nice to eat new potatoes, with their thin, papery skins, as soon as possible. Never refrigerate potatoes. It breaks down their sugars and they actually spoil more quickly after being refrigerated. It is best to keep them in a coolish dark place. I rarely peel potatoes (really only for gnocchi and mashed potatoes). A good scrub is all they need and you can always cut out any blemishes but the skin is tasty and full of nutrients.
Most cuisines have potato dishes and there really is no limit to what you can do with them. They take well to most anything, save eating raw!