Poblano peppers are central to Mexican cuisine. They are meaty, fragrant and very flavorful and greatly vary in their level of heat/spice with most of them being fairly mild. They are usually roasted (or broiled) and peeled and seeded before either stuffing or adding to salsas, soups, sauces, etc. Chiles en nogada and chile relleno are the two most famous Mexican dishes featuring poblano peppers. Poblano peppers turn red and almost black when fully mature and when dried are called chili ancho.
Anaheim peppers, much like poblanos, tend to be only mildly spicy but can occasionally surprise with their heat. They are slightly more delicate than poblanos and are more slender in shape and lighter in color. Like poblanos they are often roasted and peeled before using, but can be also be used fresh. They are delicious in sauces, soups, salsas, and more.
Peppers keep well in the fridge for a week or more. Later in the season they can be quite fragile and spoil more quickly. Check for soft spots that develop almost imperceptibly. If you don’t have time to use them but can find time to roast and peel you can freeze them for future use.
To roast peppers, set under broiler, turning them regularly to evenly blacken all sides. Put blistered put them in a bowl and cover to steam and cool, which continues to loosen the skin. Then peel and deseed and you’re ready to go.